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By Ian Mortimer

The gifted, convinced, and clever son of John of Gaunt, Henry IV begun his reign as a well-liked and charismatic king after he dethroned the tyrannical and wildly unpopular Richard II. yet six years into his reign, Henry had survived 8 assassination and overthrow makes an attempt. Having damaged God’s legislation of primogeniture by way of overthrowing the guy many folks observed because the selected king, Henry IV left himself at risk of demanding situations from robust enemies in regards to the validity of his reign. however, Henry controlled to set up the hot Lancastrian dynasty and a brand new rule of law—in hugely turbulent times.

In this ebook, famous historian Ian Mortimer, writer of The Time Traveler’s consultant to Elizabethan London, explores the political and social forces that remodeled Henry IV from his nation’s savior to its scourge.


Ian Mortimer is a British historian and historic fiction writer. He holds a PhD from the college of Exeter and a Master’s measure from the college of London, and is at present a Fellow of the Royal historic Society. he's the writer of the Sunday instances best-selling ebook A Time Traveler’s consultant to Elizabethan London, as good as specified biographies of Roger Mortimer, First Earl of March, Edward III, Henry IV, and Henry V. he's renowned for constructing and selling the idea that Edward II didn't meet his lead to Berkeley fort in 1327, as is held through traditional thought. His old fiction novel, the 1st publication within the Clarenceux Trilogy, was once released below the alias of James Forrester.

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Parliament met on 27 January. shortly, John of Gaunt and the earl of Arundel have been at loggerheads. The chancellor declared that one of many purposes for the parliament used to be the peace of the dominion, following the Cheshire rebellion. John bitterly accused Arundel of doing not anything to regulate the insurrection, even supposing the rebels’ declared goal was once to kill him and Henry, and even though Arundel have been encamped in Cheshire with a military on the time. Arundel retorted with a stinging assault on John, accusing him of being too pleasant with the king. The parliament roll (which bargains the main specified account of the argument) omits John’s accusations opposed to Arundel, and states that Arundel made up our minds to unburden himself of concerns on his moral sense, specifically that it was once to not the king’s honour to spend a lot time along with his uncle, nor that he should still put on the livery of the Lancastrians. Why did he now not deal with his different uncles with related favour? Why had John benefited rather a lot from the cash for his Spanish crusade, which had finally completed not anything greater than the enrichment of the Lancastrians? And what correct did John need to surrender the king of England’s authority to the French throne? eleven Richard placated the earl of Arundel. He defined it was once merely typical that there can be affection among nephew and uncle, and he used to be now not conscious of treating John another way from his brothers. As to the Spanish cash, Richard mentioned sensibly that it used to be parliament’s want that John adopt his Spanish crusade, and in France he had easily negotiated a draft contract, as he was once charged to do as an English ambassador. not anything but used to be set in stone on that topic. So there has been no harm both to the king’s honour or to John’s. Arundel used to be compelled to apologise publicly to the duke for his accusations. 12 however the uneasiness didn't finish there. regardless of his campaign and pilgrimage, Henry have been missed by way of the king whilst it had come to appointing receivers of petitions in parliament. within the final parliaments at which he have been present—those of 1390 and 1391—he were appointed, besides the earls of Kent, Salisbury, Arundel and Warwick. In January 1394, all 4 of those earls have been reappointed; now not Henry, even though. this can were a different reason behind disappointed for John. His son and inheritor was once now drawing close the age of twenty-seven, and had each correct to be considered as some of the most vital males within the kingdom. It was once a transparent moderate to him that he used to be no longer. for that reason, whilst Richard declared that he meant to steer an day trip to eire, the query arose as to who could be keeper of the area in his absence in a foreign country. often the following in line to the throne used to be appointed keeper. thirteen John understood that he was once subsequent in line, as his father had stipulated, yet he was once acutely aware that he must visit Gascony. So he officially requested that Henry be appointed. In influence this used to be asking Richard to understand that Henry was once the inheritor obvious, according to Edward III’s cost.

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